Autodespido o Despido Indirecto

¿Considera usted que su empleador ha incurrido en faltas o incumplimientos importantes de sus obligaciones?

El Autodespido es el procedimiento que tiene el trabajador para poner término a la relación laboral, con derecho a indemnización, cuando es el empleador quien incurre en alguna causal de término de contrato, que sea imputable a su conducta.

Este funciona como una clase de protección para el trabajador, frente a los eventuales abusos que podría tener su empleador, bajo ciertos supuestos legales, y en atención a que, si el trabajador renunciara, no recibiría el pago de sus indemnizaciones.

Los requisitos de procedencia del Autodespido, según lo dispuesto en el artículo 171 del Código del trabajo, serán los siguientes:

  1. La existencia de un contrato vigente.
  2. Haber incurrido el empleador en alguna de las siguientes causales legales:
  • La falta de Probidad de la Empresa: Esta debe entenderse como la falta de honradez, integridad y rectitud en el actuar de tu empleador. Por ejemplo, si usted considera que su empleador está incurriendo en prácticas poco éticas, podría proceder el autodespido.
  • El Acoso Sexual: si su empleador incurre en cualquier tipo de conducta de acoso sexual, también procede el autodespido, de ser estas probadas.
  • Vías de hecho ejercidas por el empleador: Si usted es agredido físicamente por su empleador, también procederá el autodespido.
  • Injurias proferidas por el empleador al Trabajador: Estas deben ser entendidas como las agresiones verbales que realiza el empleador en contra del trabajador. Si usted considera que su empleador ejerce este tipo de violencia verbal contra usted, y esta puede ser probada, puede autodespedirse.
  • La conducta inmoral del empleador: Toda conducta que cometa el empleador y que se traduzca en una humillación o agresión constante al trabajador.
  • Actos, omisiones o imprudencias temerarias que cometa el empleador, y que afecten a la seguridad o actividad de los trabajadores. El empleador debe por obligación asegurar las condiciones mínimas de seguridad para que los trabajadores desempeñen su labor sin riesgos mayores.
  • El incumplimiento grave de las obligaciones del contrato: Si su empleador no cumple sus obligaciones, usted también puede dar término al contrato. Por ejemplo, si el empleador no está pagando las remuneraciones, o no está respetando el descanso legal, puede proceder el autodespido. Incluso procedería en caso que su empleador no realice el pago de sus obligaciones obligatorias, al ser un deber legal del empleador, ya que corresponde a parte de las remuneraciones del trabajador.
  1. Se debe considerar, además, que el trabajador que demanda su autodespido, debe probar la causal de despido que está invocando, es decir, recae en el trabajador la carga de la prueba en este procedimiento, por ello es muy importante que lo que usted reclama pueda probarse.

Para demandar el autodespido, el trabajador tendrá 60 días hábiles, contados desde la terminación de los servicios, para interponer la demanda de auto despido (despido indirecto), ante los Tribunales de Justicia. De ser acogida, el Juez ordenará el pago de:

  • Indemnización sustitutiva de aviso previo.
  • Indemnización por años de servicio.
  • La indemnización por años de servicio podrá aumentarse en un 50% en caso que la causal invocada sea la de incumplimiento grave de las obligaciones.
  • La indemnización por años de servicio podrá aumentarse en un 80% en de todas las demás causales.

Por último, no será necesario interponer un reclamo ante la Inspección del Trabajo, a excepción de que lo solicitado por el trabajador sea de un valor inferior a diez ingresos mínimos mensuales. En ese caso sí sería necesario, ya que procedería el procedimiento monitoreo.

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