Imagen de computadora del coronavirus

Estimados(as) Trabajadores(as) y Sindicatos

Con el paso del tiempo en el estado de crisis sanitaria en el que se ve el país, hemos visto múltiples pronósticos de que la emergencia traerá consigo una importante recesión económica, que afectará al mundo, no quedando Chile fuera de este diagnóstico del porvenir económico.

Hemos observado en el país algunos casos de reconocidas empresas que han tomado medidas paliativas contra la crisis por las que se ha afectado la remuneración de sus trabajadores. Encontramos entre estos casos una aerolínea, que anunció una rebaja del 50% de las remuneraciones de sus trabajadores mientras se prolongue la crisis, y un reconocido restaurante, del que se ha denunciado públicamente por sus trabajadores que los está forzando a suscribir permisos sin goce de remuneración.

A continuación, se explicará brevemente qué tan ajustado a la legalidad está el proceder de tales empresas.

¿Es legal que el empleador disminuya las remuneraciones de sus trabajadores, sin el consentimiento de estos?

LA RESPUESTA ES NO. La obligación del empleador de pagar la remuneración debe hacerse conforme a los montos indicados en el contrato de trabajo, cuya modificación a este respecto requiere de la voluntad del trabajador. Este es libre de rechazar cualquier rebaja al monto de su remuneración.

No obsta en lo absoluto a esta conclusión el que la rebaja propuesta sea temporal. El pago de la remuneración en la forma y monto indicados en el contrato de trabajo es una obligación esencial del empleador, no pudiendo alterarse sin el
consentimiento del trabajador ni siquiera por una fracción menor de tiempo.

Por lo tanto, la medida que se ha anunciado adoptará la aerolínea no resultaría ajustada a la ley salvo que se cuente con la voluntad de los trabajadores que se vean afectados por esta rebaja de remuneración.

Es importante recordar también que el empleador está obligado a pagar la remuneración con la periodicidad que se indica en el contrato de trabajo, no pudiendo exceder los periodos convenidos de un mes. Por lo tanto, el empleador tampoco podría forzar al trabajador a esperar un tiempo mayor al señalado en el contrato de trabajo para recibir el pago de su remuneración.

¿Es legal que en el contexto de crisis se suscriban permisos sin goce de remuneración entre los trabajadores y el empleador?

El problema que plantea lo ocurrido a los trabajadores del restaurante resulta más complejo, ya que los permisos sin goce de remuneración sí son pactos por los que válidamente se puede suspender la vigencia tanto de la obligación del trabajador de realizar el trabajo convenido, como la del empleador de pagar la remuneración.

Sin embargo, debe existir plena claridad en que estos permisos requieren haberse pactado con la voluntad plenamente libre tanto del empleador como del trabajador. Por lo tanto, si la voluntad del trabajador estuvo viciada por un error, por haber recibido coacciones ilegítimas, o por haber sido engañado por el empleador o por terceros, este puede interponer una demanda para que se declare la nulidad del respectivo permiso.

También podría reclamarse ante los tribunales laborales si es que el trabajador suscribió un pacto de rebaja de su remuneración, encontrándose su voluntad viciada por el error, la coacción ilegítima o el engaño mal intencionado del empleador o terceros.

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